A. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION
Description of the disaster
In November 2021, Burkina Faso experienced an intensification of attacks by armed opposition groups in the Boucle du Mouhoun region, specifically in Sourou province. A series of attacks was recorded between 4 and 16 November targeting security posts and officials in Di commune destroyed what little security there was and on 18 November armed opposition groups took advantage of the poor security coverage resulting from these repeated attacks to threaten the population with reprisals for the host population remaining in DI. Fearing for their safety and following successive attacks, a large wave of displacement was observed outside Di and the surrounding area to take refuge mainly in Tougan (most IDPs), Gnessa, Toma, Dédougou, Ouagadougou, etc.
More than 5,000 people have been affected. Especially women and children. November’s displaced population adds to the existing 14,922 internally displaced persons (IDPs), including more than 7,842 temporarily displaced students who had come from other areas where schools had been closed following similar security incidents in the past.
Displaced populations from DI and surrounding areas, who lived mainly from agriculture, fishing and livestock, were deprived of their already precarious source of income in a difficult harvest climate. Di is a large production area which was in the harvest and drying period for rice production and market gardening. However, they had to leave everything behind when they fled to host areas, losing most of their livelihoods while worsening the food crisis across the region.
While moving, many took little or nothing with them and others were looted beforehand. Displaced people who have found refuge in Sourou have lost their possessions and now live in host households in Tougan or in informal sites with a marked tendency to relocate to urban centers, mainly to have better access to social services. and humanitarian aid. Women heads of households and children also see their level of vulnerability accentuated because access to adequate housing is increasingly limited due to saturation or high prices. These populations had urgent life-saving needs: essential household items (EHI), food, livelihoods and financial support to pay their rent and health care bills. Social, health and school services in Tougan are also under great pressure, particularly in terms of health, education, drinking water supply, etc. to support the urgent needs of the most vulnerable families in the highest reception area of Tougan.
The displacement crisis is a complex situation in the country which emphasizes the urgency justifying the launch of the DREF in 2021. According to the OCHA report of May 20, 2022, the number of internally displaced persons is 1,893,250 in March against 1,423,378 as of August 31, 2021 and it continues to grow. Highlights from all Humanitarian and National Society reports include that known insecurity and attacks in the “3 borders zone” (the country’s borders with Mali, Niger and Benin) are worsening even after the end of this response operation, being a factor in the persistent food insecurity in the country.
Given the general humanitarian context in Burkina Faso, which has been experiencing a food crisis for several years, increasing drought, problems of access to water and health care, population movements from neighboring countries, etc., add to the urgency of this displacement crisis for Tougan, which has not benefited from assistance to newly displaced persons.
More details on the emergency context prior to the launch of this DREF operation, particularly in Sourou and Tougan, can be found in the initial EPoA along with an in-depth analysis on food insecurity here on which the IFRC has a regional appeal. against hunger for an action plan.